Fully Traceable, Clinical-Grade KLH
Due to the controlled conditions of land-based aquaculture, we can trace each Stellar KLH™ lot back to the individual source animals.
Under GMP systems, Stellar KLH protein has been extracted from limpets utilizing a non-harmful method and forward processed to various formulations.
We maintain Drug Master Files (DMF) that can be referenced by our clients with clinical development studies.
Decades of Development
Well Known and Versatile
KLH is widely used in immunological applications, both as a carrier molecule in certain immunotherapies (therapeutic vaccines) and as a finished product for testing immune status in patients and research settings.
There are more than 3,600 publications referencing Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin in biomedical literature.
KLH Isoforms and Functional Units
KLH is expressed in two isoforms (KLH1 and KLH2) assembled into decamers and didecamers of 4 MDa to 8 MDa molecular weight. The subunit isoforms (approximately 400-600 kDa monomeric molecular weight) are each composed of 7 or 8 functional unit; each unit having an oxygen binding site of two copper atoms.
Both the high molecular weight native molecule and subunit KLH are excellent immune stimulants.
KLH is an effective and safe carrier molecule in active immunotherapies being developed for the treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases, immune disorders and Alzheimer’s disease, among other diseases.
As a carrier molecule, KLH is combined, or conjugated, to vaccine antigens that are used to promote the generation of antibody and cell-mediated immune responses against targeted diseases. By themselves, the small haptens (partial antigens) and vaccine antigens used to target these diseases are not usually immunogenic enough to awaken the immune system and therefore, require a carrier molecule or adjuvant, like KLH, in order to be effective. KLH is ideal in this role due to its immune-stimulating properties, large size, numerous sites for antigen conjugation, and safety profile.
KLH has diagnostic applications as a finished injectable product. It is extensively used by pharmaceutical companies and researchers as a safe, immune-stimulating antigen in drug immunotoxicology and assessment of immune status.
KLH is a standard immunogen in T-Cell Dependent Antibody Response (TDAR), a functional assay used to assess an antibody response. TDAR with KLH is widely recognized as a test for monitoring the effects of drugs on the immune system.
A Powerful Immune Stimulant
Due in part to its controlled aquaculture source and manufacturing methods, Stellar KLH has been shown to reliably produce vigorous primary and secondary immune responses.
Traceable from native source to finished product
Known origin of material, continuity of data
Stabilized, liquid formulations; never lyophilized
High purity, low endotoxin
Environmentally sound practices
- Lauwerys, Hachulla, Spertini, Lazaro, Jorgensen, Mariette, Haelterman. Down-regulation of interferon signature in systemic lupus erythematosus patients by active immunization with interferon-a-kinoid. Arthritis Rheum. 2013 Feb;65(2):477-56. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/down-regulation-of-interferon-signature-in-systemic-lupus-er.html
- Lebrec, Hock, Sundsmo, Mytych, Chow, Carlock, Joubert, Reindel, Zhou, Bussiere. T-cell-dependent antibody responses in the rat: Forms and sources of keyhole limpet hemocyanin matter. J Immunotox 2013; August 20 Epub. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/t-cell-dependent-antibody-responses-in-the-rat-forms-and-sou-1.html
- Miller, Curtsinger, Merthoid, Malvey, Bliss, Le, Fautsch, Dudek, Blazar, Panoskaltsis-Mortari. Diminished neo-antigen response to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) vaccines in patients after treatment with chemotherapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clin Immun 2005; 117:144-151. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/diminished-neo-antigen-response-to-keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin.html
- Musselli, Livingston, Raqupathi. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccines against cancer: the Memorial Sloan Kettering experience. J Cancer Res Clin Oncology 2001 Oct; 127 Suppl 2:R20-6. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/keyhole-limpet-hemocyanin-conjugate-vaccines-against-cancer.html
- Shuguang, Milbrandt, Brisson. Measuring properties of different forms of Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) reveals important differences. Immunology 2015; poster presented May 8-12, 2015. http://www.klhsite.org/klh-publications/measuring-properties-of-different-forms-of-keyhole-limpet-he.html
- U.S. Clinical Trials database www.clinicaltrials.gov
- Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin Knowledge Base. www.klhsite.org